The Effects on Antiaging Molecules of Physical Exercise
Regular physical activity slows the aging process and reduces the risk of injury in older adults. Both aerobic and resistance training have many beneficial effects on the body as well as the aging process. In humans, aging is a process that changes many biological mechanisms, from the molecular to the physical level, and affects mental and cardiorespiratory health, flexibility and muscle function. Muscle morphology, fiber size, and functional characteristics, including strength, are maintained by lifelong physical activity. The molecular mechanisms by which older humans maintain musculoskeletal function are of great interest, particularly in developed countries with aging populations. In cells, telomerase activity and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are indispensable antiaging factors for cellular survival. Physical activity induces the increase in telomerase activity and NAD+ level with anti-aging effects in the cells. This review will assess recent studies that correlated NAD+ as a signaling molecule, telomerase as an indicator, to exercise and the aging process.
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